Will Germany Really Restitute Looted Benin Artefacts?
It has been widely reported that Germany intends to restitute looted Benin artefacts that it acquired from the British after the notorious British invasion of Benin in 1897. (1) As every reader knows, possession of these artefacts by Germany and other European States and their museums has been the subject of contention for decades. We have dealt with various aspects of this issue in more than 200 articles, stressing the illegal, unjust, and immoral nature of the European detention of the cultural artefacts of Benin. (2) A main German argument has been that they acquired legally the Benin artefacts through purchase on the free market. (3) In reality, even though the Germans were not involved in the actual looting in 1897, they were accomplices after the fact. The invasion was in winter 1897 and by spring of the same year the artefacts were on sale and were purchased by many European and American institutions and individuals knowing fully well that these were stolen items. Indeed, the catalogues of most auctioneers stated that the objects were fresh from the conquest and even some of the objects had blood on them. (4)
After decades of debates on the restitution of Benin artefacts, with Benin/Nigeria incessantly demanding restitution and Germany and other European States ignoring the request, the Director of the newly built Euro700M. cultural centre, Humboldt Forum, announced, to the surprise of many, that the Benin artefacts will no longer be displayed in the Humboldt Forum as planned. Hartmut Dorgerloh stated that the Benin artefacts can no longer be shown as envisaged but did not give any explanation for this sudden change of a long-held position. According to the Süddeutsche Zeitung, Andreas Görgen, head of the cultural department of the German Foreign Ministry was in Benin to discuss an agreement with the Nigerian authorities. Under the agreement, Germany would participate in archaeological excavations in the region, train Nigeria museum employees, participate in the construction of the new museum in Benin City, and restitute the Benin artefacts from Berlin to the Restoration Legacy Trust, an NGO established in 2019.
The German foreign minister, Heiko Maas, said the repatriation issue was part of an “honest approach to colonial history”, adding that “It is a question of justice.”
Preceding this extraordinary change of position has been decades of criticism of the German and other European positions. Many NGO’s, especially those united under the name of No Humboldt 21, had attacked the idea of showing looted artefacts in the newly built institution because of the illegality of acquisition. Bénédicte Savoy resigned from the Humboldt Forum Board of Experts for the same reason. The Sarr-Savoy report (2018) which had been commissioned by President Emmanuel Macron, France, set in motion activities that are still being felt that question whether it was not time to return the looted artefacts.
Criticisms by scholars, activists and others had made it difficult for the newly constructed Humboldt Forum to insist on displaying looted Benin artefacts without any further explanation. Bénédicte Savoy also stated in her recent book, Afrikas Kampf um seine Kunst, (Africa’s Struggle for its Art) and in a Spiegel interview that such a display was wrong and that ‘with every month, with every day, it becomes less likely that you can show the bronzes without embarrassing yourself’. (5)
The announcement by Humboldt Forum has been received by many as a welcome development. But what did the director of the Humboldt Forum really state? Hartmut Dorgerloh told the German press on Monday, 22 March, that the 440 Benin artefacts, half of which were to be displayed in the Humboldt Forum, could no longer be exhibited; only replicas of the bronzes would be shown or replaced by symbolic empty spaces and that the artefacts could be returned to Nigeria as soon as this autumn. A spokesperson of the Prussian Foundation for Cultural Heritage added that the exhibition which is to open at the end of this year would ‘critically engage with the history of the West African kingdom and its conquest by British troops.’ (6)
This German initiative would be one of the great surprises in restitution matters if it is ever realized and should have a similar seismic impact as the Ouagadougou Declaration in 2017 by President Macron on the need to return African artefacts to Africa. Indeed, since the German statement includes a probable actual restitution soon, it should be assessed higher than the declaration of the French President. Many who have followed the German position in the restitution debate are surprised even though we hope it is a sincere effort to find a long-term solution to the problematic Benin artefacts in German museums.
What surprised me most about the declaration by Hartmut Dorgerloh, apart from its unexpected reversal of German position, was that it was made by the Director of Humboldt Forum and not by the President of the Prussian Cultural Heritage Foundation who is considered as representing the Foundation that holds ownership rights in the Benin artefacts. Could there have been an arrangement by the two institutions that the one who has no right to dispose of the Benin artefacts makes such a declaration whilst the one with ownership rights keeps quiet? It is true that Hartmut Dorgerloh added that the actual decision on restitution would be taken in September by the PSK (Prussian Foundation for Cultural Heritage).’ Hermann Parzinger ,President of the Prussian Foundation for Cultural Heritage has in a recent interview indicated willingness to consider restitution of the Benin artefacts.
The statement that the Benin artefacts can no longer be displayed in the Humboldt Forum was later retracted with the information that the Forum is organising an exhibition from September 2021 to November 2022 in which the Benin artefacts will be shown and discussed. Artefacts displayed until November 2022 cannot obviously be sent to Nigeria by the end of 2021.
What likewise concerned me is that in both authority and non-official proclamations it isn’t certain whether we are managing simple return or with full compensation of possession rights to the first proprietors of the antiques. What additionally ought to be clarified is whether one is discussing the Restoration Legacy Trust which has effectively been set up in 2019 or another trust to be set up. (7)
As I would like to think a compensation of the Benin antiquities should be made to the first proprietor, the Oba of Benin, who may choose to place his property into a trust for his kin, directed by trustees picked by him or his kin. This can’t include trustees picked by the past illicit holders or their delegates for they would profit by their own bad behavior and foul play. The overall legitimate guideline here is Ex injuria jus non oritur, law or right doesn’t emerge from treachery. The individuals who have made injury the Benin individuals through brutality and robbery can’t currently, when requested to restore the plundered items, reserve the option to decide the future use and predetermination of the articles for which numerous Benin lives were forfeited. The endeavors by the supposed worldwide partners to have a say in Benin/Nigerian courses of action is a continuation of the since quite a while ago held egotistical European view that they have an undeniable right, if not an obligation, to oversee Africans and the utilization of their assets including their social relics. They trust Africans alone can’t run their own undertakings except if managed by Europeans. This pompous suspicion rarely end. Could anybody envision the casualties of Nazi seizures putting on board of trust of an association to help survivors of Nazi monstrosities an individual from a gathering that upheld terrible demonstrations of the Nazi system?
The Humboldt Forum and the Ethnological Museum, Berlin, are important for the Benin Dialog Group which additionally incorporates the British Museum, World Museum, Vienna, and other driving European historical centers which some time prior officially pronounced that compensation was not piece of their plan. At the point when we gave an account of this, we were viciously assaulted by the late Prof. Folarin Shyllon who anyway concurred that the thing ought not have been taken out from their plan. (8) We don’t know whether that compensation has been returned on the plan, however numerous reports expect that the gathering was working constantly on this. The gathering had proclaimed that the issue was a two-sided matter between Benin/Nigeria and the individual States addressed in the gathering that was able to allow just advances of the ancient rarities to Benin/Nigeria.
The assertions by the German Foreign Minister, Heiko Mass, by Andreas Görgen and by Helmut Dorgerloh appear to overlook the government idea of the German political framework and the way that proprietorship rights in the antiquities in most ethnological historical centers lie with the Federal States, Länder, whose express assent will be important for choices to restore ancient rarities. The facts confirm that the Federal States had effectively on thirteenth March 2019 given their overall endorsement of the rule of compensation however is adequately this? Have they likely counseled all concerned? I see since the Culture Minister of the Bund, Monica Grütters is currently requiring a gathering to build up an overall public procedure for compensation for Germany. Yet, the explanation that was given by the Prussian Foundation for Cultural Heritage was less excited for compensation and introduced compensation as one of numerous potential arrangements. The Foundation in its assertion of 24.3.2021 approved its President, Hermann Parzinger, along with the way of life pastors of the lander and heads of German exhibition halls holding Benin curios to build up a typical procedure for Germany. The Benin ancient rarities are perceived as having been obtained in a setting which as per the present norms would be considered as treacherous setting. The reference to the present principles unmistakably suggests that the demonstrations were not off-base around then. The assertion of the Prussian Foundation doesn’t give the feeling that Germany is in a rush to return any Benin relics. Yet, it will positively lessen the tension on the Germans and Europeans and their exhibition halls and empower them to look for an answer shy of discount compensation.
Culture Minister Grütters has likewise declared the goal of holding a gathering with galleries authorities and agents from the Foreign Ministry on building up a typical system for Germany. She likewise expressed that it is significant that the Germans go to a typical comprehension with agents of social orders of birthplace of source nations which can likewise incorporate compensation..
The German activity at compensation would enormously affect the compensation banter or more all, put gigantic focus on the other European States that hold Benin antiquities like Austria, Netherlands, France, and Britain. World Museum, Vienna, will without a doubt be squeezed to speed up compensation of its 196 Benin objects and to desert all affection of provenance research.
The Netherlands have effectively instituted standards and systems for compensation that would empower them to assist compensation of Benin antiquities without unnecessary pressing factor from the German activity. (9) Indeed, the Dutch quickly came out with the data that out of the 184 Benin objects in the National Museum of World Cultures in the Netherlands,114 were plainly plundered by British soldiers. These are assortments in the Museum of Ethnology in Leiden, the Tropenmuseum in Amsterdam, the Africa Museum in Berg en Dal and the Wereldmuseum in Rotterdam. (10) The Dutch have conveyed an investigation of provenance research on their Benin relics which must be portrayed as astounding We have not seen comparative examinations from different nations.
France might have the option to oppose the pressing factor from the German activity for some time having as of late passed a restricted enactment approving compensation of 27 relics to Benin Republic and a blade to Senegal. Be that as it may, this is positively, over the long haul, not adequate. There is a requirement for an overall enactment that empowers compensation of plundered African antiquities. (11)
England would feel most the pressing factor coming from German compensation of Benin antiques. The UK is the most un-willing and arranged country for compensation. Yet, on the off chance that Germans feel it isn’t right to show the plundered Benin ancient rarities, how might the exhibition halls of the State that coordinated the Benin intrusion of 1897, plundered the relics, and offered some to Germany and different nations legitimize kept holding or show of the plundered curios? Could the typical dull presentation by the British Museum do the trick?
“We accept the strength of the British Museum assortment lives in its expansiveness and profundity, permitting a huge number of guests a comprehension of the way of life of the world and how they interconnect over the long run – regardless of whether through exchange, relocation, triumph, or serene trade.” (12)
Could this exhausted defense for clutching plundered antiquities be adequate to oppose the pressing factor from German compensation? Would Hartwig Fischer keep on pursueing a line of guard which is entirely against the points of the Black Lives Matter with which he supposedly identifies? (13)
A day after the declaration of the German activity, there are signs that provincial exhibition halls in the UK won’t follow the British Museum in its unyielding position. The University of Aberdeen has reported that it expects to restore a Benin bronze to Nigeria very soon. Prof George Boyne, the college’s head and bad habit chancellor of the University proclaimed:
“It would not have been all in all correct to have held a thing of such incredible social significance that was obtained in such inexcusable conditions. We in this manner concluded that an unequivocal return is the most suitable move we can make, and are thankful for the nearby coordinated effort with our accomplices in Nigeria,” (14)
This is in rebellion of the new arrangement of the British Government that galleries ought to hold dubious ancient rarities and disclose them to their guests instead of return them or move them. (15) Cambridge Museum of Archeology and Anthropology, which holds an enormous assortment of bronzes said that if a case were made for a curio with 1897 provenance , the assumption would be that it would be returned. Bristol Museum and Art Gallery said it was “available to all prospects” and is effectively working with Nigerian gatherings. Others, remembering the Great North Museum for Newcastle upon Tyne and Royal Pavilions and Museum in Brighton are occupied with investigating the cause of their bronzes before any choice would be made. (16) Thus, the territorial galleries in UK won’t indiscriminately acknowledge the new government request that they illustrate British expansionism.
The rules for British historical centers in dealing with objects obtained in pilgrim setting have not yet been given. It could well be that the creators are not, at this point sure of the overall direction they should provide for the principles, ending up between the reformist position of German and Dutch exhibition halls and the ardent situation of the British Museum, floated by ongoing government dangers.
The German choice to restore Benin ancient rarities, verges on the inexplicable when one considers the German situation as of not long ago and every one of the demanding endeavors sent to try not to acknowledge any obligation to return plundered antiques. Interests and exhausting endeavors at ecclesiastical and executive levels to forestall compensation have been portrayed in detail by Bénédicte Savoy in her new book, Afrikas Kampf um seine Kunst (Africa’s Struggle for its Art).
While inviting the German activity at compensation, we should hang tight for conclusive evaluation of its value. We have regularly had in the compensation banter circumstances in which the impression was made that solid compensation was going to happen just to understand that nothing or little is evolving. The assertion of the Prussian Cultural Heritage Fou